Tull (D) was charged with violation of the Clean Water Act for discharging fill material into wetlands. The Government (P) sued D for a civil penalty. It sought injunctive relief as well as civil penalties in excess of $22 million. By the time the complaint was filed, D had sold most of the property, and an injunction was proper only for a small part of the land. The district court denied D's motion for a jury trial. It found that D had illegally filled in the wetlands area and gave judgment to P for $325,000. The court of appeals affirmed the ruling holding that D was not entitled to a jury trial. The Supreme Court granted certiorari.