The Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes regulatory programs to control air pollution from stationary sources (such as refineries and factories) and moving sources (such as cars and airplanes). Congress established a unique procedure to determine the applicability of the program to fossil-fuel-fired power plants. Congress directed the Agency to “perform a study of the hazards to public health reasonably anticipated to occur as a result of emissions by [power plants] of [hazardous air pollutants] after imposition of the requirements of this chapter.” EPA concluded that regulation of coal- and oil-fired power plants was “appropriate and necessary.” The analysis estimated that the regulation would force power plants to bear costs of $9.6 billion per year. The Agency could not fully quantify the benefits of reducing power plants’ emissions of hazardous air pollutants; to the extent it could, it estimated that these benefits were worth $4 to $6 million per year. The ancillary benefits of cutting particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, substances that are not covered by the hazardous-air-pollutants program would be $37 to $90 billion per year. Ps challenged EPA's ruling. The Court of Appeals upheld the Agency’s decision not to consider cost The Supreme Court granted certiorari.