P was an employee of Prince William County, Va. As part of her compensation, the county provided her with coverage under a prepaid group health plan purchased from D. The plan specifically provided reimbursement for a portion of the cost incurred for outpatient treatment for mental and nervous disorders, including psychotherapy. D reimbursed subscribers for psychotherapy provided by psychiatrists. D did not provide reimbursement for the services of psychologists unless the treatment was supervised by and billed through a physician. P was treated by a clinical psychologist, and D denied her claim because it was not billed through a physician. P sued D alleging that D and the Neuropsychiatric Society of Virginia, Inc., had engaged in an unlawful conspiracy in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Act to exclude and boycott clinical psychologists from receiving compensation under' the Blue Shield plans. D moved to dismiss in that P lacked standing to sue. The District Court granted D's motion to dismiss. The court concluded that the 'sector of the economy competitively endangered' by the charged violation extended 'no further than that area occupied by the psychologists.' P's injury was 'too indirect and remote to be considered 'antitrust injury.'' P appealed. The Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed, wherein a §4 remedy was available to any person 'whose property loss is directly or proximately caused by' a violation of the antitrust laws, and that P's loss was not 'too remote or indirect to be covered by the Act.' The Supreme Court granted certiorari.